In 2004, nursing leaders of the APRN Joint Dialogue Group began discussions with advanced practice nursing organizations, the National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN), and accrediting agencies to seek uniform standardization of education, accreditation, licensure, and certification across the advanced practice arena. The Consensus Model for APRN Regulation, Licensure, Accreditation, Certification and Education (NCSBN, 2008) separated the APRNs into four distinct roles: certified nurse practitioners (CNPs), clinical nurse specialists (CNSs), certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs), and certified nurse midwives (CNMs), and in at least one of six population foci: family/individual across the lifespan, adult-gerontology, neonatal, pediatrics, women’s health/gender-related, or psychiatric/mental health (NCSBN, 2008).

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